In function template, how to determine type of one argument based on another

I’d like to implement a function template that takes two arguments, a T* and a T, but where the second argument’s type is determined by the first. Here’s a minimal non-working example:

#include <cstddef>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdint>
#include <type_traits>
#include <vector>

template<typename T> void
patch(T *dst, T src)
{
  static_assert(std::is_standard_layout_v<T>);
  std::byte *p = reinterpret_cast<std::byte *>(&src);
  std::vector newval(p, p + sizeof(src));

  // In the real code, memcpy happens later if a transaciton commits
  std::memcpy(dst, newval.data(), newval.size());
}

int
main()
{
  std::uint16_t u16;
  patch(&u16, 0);  // Fails to compile because 0 is int, not uint16_t
}

This code unfortunately fails to compile because the type T to patch cannot be inferred in patch(&u16, 0), because 0 is an int rather than a std::uint16_t. Obviously I could cast the 0 or call patch<uint16_t>(...), but in an ideal world I wouldn’t have to.

On the other hand, I can work around the problem if the second argument involves some kind of non-trivial type computation. For example, the code will compile if I declare the function as:

template<typename T> void
patch(T *dst, std::decay_t<T> src) {/*...*/}

When I originally asked the question, I implemented the following and believed it didn’t work. I must have made a mistake, however, because as pointed out by the selected answer, it does in fact work:

template<typename T> struct sametype {
  using type = T;
};
template<typename T> using sametype_t = typename sametype<T>::type;

template<typename T> void
patch(T *dst, sametype_t<T> src) {/*...*/}

My question is what’s the minimal transformation one can apply to a template function argument to force its type to be inferred by the type of a different argument to the same function?

Answer

This is exactly the kind of scenario that std::type_identity_t<T> is intended to resolve. This transformation creates what’s called a non-deduced context, which you’ve requested for your second parameter of type T. Unfortunately this type trait wasn’t introduced until the C++20 standard.

You can continue to use the one you’ve implemented (which by the way, yes it does compile at least according to godbolt), or if you’re using boost, there is a boost::type_identity_t<T> available.

To answer your question directly though, I believe the minimal transformation necessary in C++17 would be this:

template<typename T> void
patch(T *dst, decltype(std::declval<T>()) src)