subprocess.Popen() sends awk and grep lines differently than expected

On a CentOS 7.2 I have a file called cpuload, which contains the latest CPU load data in the following format:

last 30 sec:
average load: 0
cpu0 total load:     0
cpu1 total load:     0
cpu2 total load:     0
cpu3 total load:     1
cpu4 total load:     0
cpu5 total load:     0
cpu6 total load:     0
cpu7 total load:     0

last sec:
average load: 1
cpu0 total load:     5
cpu1 total load:     1
cpu2 total load:     1
cpu3 total load:     3
cpu4 total load:     2
cpu5 total load:     1
cpu6 total load:     0
cpu7 total load:     0

I want to get the number after the “average load:” of the “last sec” bit. Two cli commands give me that information when I run them as shell commands on the terminal: grep 'average load:' cpuload | sed -n 's/.*load: //p' | tail -n1 and awk 'NR > 2 && /average load:/ {print $3}' cpuload

But when I run them in subprocess.Popen() with Shell=True I only get stderr:

for:

import subprocess

cmd = ["grep", "'average load:'", "cpuload", "|", "sed", "-n", "'s/.*load: //p'", "|", "tail", "-n1"]
test = subprocess.Popen(cmd, stdout = subprocess.PIPE, stderr = subprocess.PIPE, shell=True)
test.stderr.read()

I get:

b"Usage: grep [OPTION]... PATTERN [FILE]...nTry 'grep --help' for more information.n"

and for:

import subprocess
    
cmd = cmd = ["awk", "'NR > 2 && /average load:/ {print $3}'", "cpuload"]
test = subprocess.Popen(cmd, stdout = subprocess.PIPE, stderr = subprocess.PIPE)
test.stderr.read()

I also get:

b"awk: cmd. line:1: 'NR > 2 && /average load:/ {print $3}'nawk: cmd. line:1: ^ invalid char ''' in expressionn"

Even though I avoided using a |

or if shell=True I get:

b"Usage: awk [POSIX or GNU style options] -f progfile [--] file ...nUsage: awk [POSIX or GNU style options] [--] 'program' file ...nPOSIX options:ttGNU long options: (standard)nt-f progfilett--file=progfilent-F fsttt--field-separator=fsnt-v var=valtt--assign=var=valnShort options:ttGNU long options: (extensions)nt-bttt--characters-as-bytesnt-cttt--traditionalnt-Cttt--copyrightnt-d[file]tt--dump-variables[=file]nt-e 'program-text't--source='program-text'nt-E filettt--exec=filent-gttt--gen-potnt-httt--helpnt-L [fatal]tt--lint[=fatal]nt-nttt--non-decimal-datant-Nttt--use-lc-numericnt-Ottt--optimizent-p[file]tt--profile[=file]nt-Pttt--posixnt-rttt--re-intervalnt-Sttt--sandboxnt-tttt--lint-oldnt-Vttt--versionnnTo report bugs, see node `Bugs' in `gawk.info', which isnsection `Reporting Problems and Bugs' in the printed version.nngawk is a pattern scanning and processing language.nBy default it reads standard input and writes standard output.nnExamples:ntgawk '{ sum += $1 }; END { print sum }' filentgawk -F: '{ print $1 }' /etc/passwdn"

What am I doing wrong?

Answer

The issue was with passing the awk parameter to subprocess with ‘ around them, as detailed here

Did not accept Ed Morton’s comment as it did not specify what should have been done.