EU/Schengen: Is a visa required if you have work permit?

I am a non-EU citizen (with Indian passport) travelling to Sweden on a work permit. The embassy told me that all I need to carry are the passport and the work/residence permit card. Is that it? I mean, my passport has nothing affixed to it. Isn’t a visa required if you have a work permit?

On a related note:
Can I travel to other countries in the EU/Schengen zone with a work permit from one of them? If yes, is there a restriction on the number of days?

Answer

Official requirements for a non-EU citizen to enter Schengen zone (source):

  • He/she is in possession of a valid travel document or documents authorising them to cross the border; the acceptance of
    travel documents for this purpose remains within the domain of the
    member states;
  • The travel document must be valid for at least 3 months after the intended date of departure from the Schengen Area (although in a
    justified case of emergency this obligation may be waived) and must
    have been issued within the previous 10 years
  • The traveller either possesses a valid visa (if required) or a valid residence permit;
  • The traveller can justify the purpose and conditions of the intended stay and has sufficient means of subsistence, both for the duration of
    the intended stay and for the return to his or her country of origin
    or transit to a third country into which the traveller is certain to
    be admitted, or is in a position to acquire such means lawfully;
  • The Schengen Information System does not contain an alert for refusal of entry concerning the traveller, and
  • The traveller is not considered to be a threat to public policy, internal security, public health or the international relations of any
    of the Schengen states.

However, once you’re inside of Schengen zone:

What is the legal rights of foreigners within the Schengen area?

The
Schengen Agreement permits individuals who are staying legally within
the Schengen territory to travel about inside the territory without
border checks. This does not only apply to the citizens of these
countries but also to foreigners. Thus, foreigners with a valid
residence permit in a Schengen State and carrying valid documents can
travel within the territory and do not need any special permission to
do so.

Note, that even though residency card is generally accepted as photo ID, it is not a travel document, and won’t be accepted by various airlines.

On the other hand non-Schengen EU countries (for example UK) may require additional visa.

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